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Biotechnology Engineering Interview Questions and Answers

Biotechnology Engineering Interview Questions and Answers

Question - 1 : - Do You Know How The Dose For Children Is Being Estimated Based On Preclinical Data?

Answer - 1 : -

There are a number of ways of estimating children's doses from preclinical (adult) data - often depends on the therapeutic index of the drug in question (the wider the therapeutic window the less accurate the child's dose needs to be). Sometimes straight weight-basis i.e. 7kg child gets 1/10 dose of 70kg adult.
           More accurate (so they say) is a dose based on body surface area (child's surface area is greater in proportion to its body weight than an adult is). There are normograms to calculate surface area from weight and height of child.
          All of these may be wrong if clearance of drug in child is significantly different from adult e.g. different metabolism or different route of clearance.

Question - 2 : - What Is The Definition Of “biomedical”? What Topics Cover The Study Of Biomedical Sciences?

Answer - 2 : -

The term "biomedical" covers a vast range of subjects - everything that relates biology to medicine. This can range from the obvious like Anatomy, Biochemistry, Physiology, Microbiology, Pharmacology, Genetics to the less obvious like Botany (most drugs were originally derived from plants and, thus, these is a big science called Phytopharmacology).

Question - 3 : - Is Phenoxyethanol Harmful?

Answer - 3 : -

Phenoxyethanol is harmful and can be absorbed through the skin - official sites for toxicity data, however, show little toxicity in man and some toxicity (irritation) with high doses in animals. Phenoxyethanol is in cosmetics as a bactericide (kills bacteria).

Question - 4 : - Why Is Buprenorphine Less Addictive Than Other Opioids (like Fentanyl) - Is It Explainable By Its Strength Of Binding To The Common Receptor, Or?

Answer - 4 : -

Buprenorphine is what is referred to as a partial agonist - i.e. it binds to the receptor but even at its maximum cannot give as much of an effect as a full agonist (such as morphine) - it is, thus, also a partial antagonist (partially inhibits the actions of full agonists).
          As addiction is likely to be linked to strength of the effect of the drug, buprenorphine has less effect and, therefore, less addiction.

Question - 5 : - How Is The Concentration Of Drugs In Human Plasma Defined?

Answer - 5 : -

Some drugs bind extensively to plasma proteins (Warfarin binds 99%) whereas others have virtually no binding.
Extraction depends on the type of drug - there are different standard techniques for acidic, basic, and neutral drugs - and, indeed, some drugs need specific extraction techniques.
It is important for you doing bioequivalence studies to know exactly the proportion of drug extracted but such controls are again specific for each drug and use specific marker compounds.

Question - 6 : - How Is The Calculation Derived For A Drug To Be Bio Equivalent With Other? On Which Base The Limit Is Fixed As 80-120% For A Drug To Be Bio Equivalent. What Is Meant By 90% Confidential Interval?

Answer - 6 : -

To be "bioequivalent" two preparations or drugs need to give the same biological effect.
The usual "experimental error" put on this is 20% - thus, 80-120% is considered "bioequivalent.”
90 percentage confidence interval means that statistically it is 90% certain that the results are equivalent.

Question - 7 : - What Are High Affinity Receptors?

Answer - 7 : -

Mast cells and basophils express high affinity receptor. The high affinity enables it to bind with IgE, despite low serum concentration of IgE.

Question - 8 : - What Is P-k Reaction?

Answer - 8 : -

The response produced when an allergen is injected into an individual, who is sensitive is called P-K reaction.

Question - 9 : - Give An Example For Electrophilic Substitution Reaction?

Answer - 9 : -

The species, which accepts the electrons, are called Electrophilles (or) Electrophilic reagents. When the atom (or) group of atoms present in the organic compound is replaced by another atom (or) group of atoms (electrophilic) is called electrophilic substitution reaction.

Question - 10 : - Where Do Most Allergic Reactions Occur?

Answer - 10 : -

Most of them occur on mucous membrane. Allergens enter the body by the process of inhalation or ingestion.

NCERT Solutions


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