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Computer Interview Questions Answers

Chapter 8- Cell The Unit of Life Interview Questions Answers

Question - 11 : - What are nuclear pores? State their function.

Answer - 11 : -

Nuclear envelope bounds the nucleus from outside and separates it from cytoplasm. It consists of two membranes, with outer membrane continuous with endoplasmic reticulum. The nuclear envelope is interrupted by minute nuclear pores, at a number of places, which are produced by the fusion of its two membranes. These
nuclear pores are the passages through which movement of RNA and protein molecules takes place in both directions between the nucleus and the cytoplasm.

Question - 12 : - Both lysosomes and vacuoles are endomem-brane ‘structures, yet they differ in terms of their functions. Comment.

Answer - 12 : - Organelles of endomembrane system such as lysosome and vacuoles function in close coordination with one another but are specialised to perform different functions. Lysosomes breakdown the ageing and dead cells, they help in digestion of food as they contain hydrolytic digestive enzymes. They are involved in cell division also. Vacuoles on other hand, help in excretion and osmoregulation in Amoeba (contractile vacuole) or provides buoyancy, mechanical strength in prokaryotes (air vacuoles).

Question - 13 : -
Describe the structure of the following withthe help of labelled diagrams.
(i) Nucleus (ii) Centrosome

Answer - 13 : -

(i) Nucleus: Nucleus is double membrane bound principle cell organelle which contains all genetic information for controlling cellular metabolism and transmission of genetic information.
Nucleus is differentiated into following four parts:
(a) Nuclear envelope: It is a double membrane bound envelope that surround the nucleus and separates the latter from the cytoplasm.
(b) Nucleoplasm: Itis clear, non-staining, fluid material present in the nucleus, which contains raw materials (nucleotides), enzymes (DNA/RNA polymerases) and metal ions for the synthesis of RNAs and DNA. The nuclear matrix or the nucleoplasm is composed of nucleolus and chromatin.
(c) Nucleolus: It is a naked, round and slightly irregular structure, which is attached to the chromatin at a specific region. It is a site for active ribosomal RNA synthesis.
(d) Chromatin : It has the ability to get stained with certain basic dyes. It is known to be the hereditary DNA protein fibrillar complex. The chromatin fibres are distributed throughout the nucleoplasm.
(ii) Centrosome: Centrosome is an organelle usually containing two cylindrical structures called centrioles. They are surrounded by amorphous pericentriolar materials. Both the centrioles in a centrosome lie perpendicular to each other. They are made up of nine evenly spaced peripheral fibrils of tubulin protein. Each of the peripheral fibril is a triplet. The adjacent triplets are also linked. The hub of centriole is connected with tubules of the peripheral triplets by radial spokes made of protein.

Question - 14 : - What is a centromere? How does the position of centromere form the basis of classification of chromosomes. Support your answer with a diagram showing the position of centromere on different types of chromosomes.

Answer - 14 : -

A chromosome consists of two identical halves, the chromatids held together at one point called the centromere. The centromere is also called as primary constriction. On its side a disc shaped structure called kinetochore is present. Chromosomes are classified into four types according to position of centromere on the chromosome.
(i) Metacentric chromosome: In this chromosome, centromere is in the middle and the two arms are almost equal in length.
(ii)Submetacentric chromosome: The centromere is slightly away from middle point so one arm is slightly shorter than the other.
(iii)Acrocentric chromosome: The centromere is near the end and one arm is extremely short and other arm is extremely long.
(iv)Telocentric chromosome: Centromere is at the tip of chromosome. These chromosomes are not present in humans.



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