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Computer Interview Questions Answers

MS SQL Interview Questions Answers

Question - 61 : - How do you get a portion of a string?

Answer - 61 : - SELECT SUBSTR(title, 1, 10) from techpreparation_questions;

Question - 62 : - Causes of Access denied Errors?

Answer - 62 : - If you encounter Access denied errors when you try to connect to the MySQL server, the list below indicates some courses of action you can take to correct the problem: The server should let you connect without error. You should also make sure you have a file `user.MYD' in the MySQL database directory. Ordinarily, this is `PATH/var/mysql/user.MYD', where PATH is the pathname to the MySQL installation root. After a fresh installation, you should connect to the server and set up your users and their access permissions: shell> mysql -u root mysql The server should let you connect because the MySQL root user has no password initially. That is also a security risk, so setting the root password is something you should do while you're setting up your other MySQL users. If you try to connect as root and get this error: Access denied for user: '@unknown' to database mysql this means that you don't have an entry in the user table with a User column value of 'root' and that mysqld cannot resolve the hostname for your client. In this case, you must restart the server with the --skip-grant-tables option and edit your `/etc/hosts' or `\windows\hosts' file to add an entry for your host. If you updated an existing MySQL installation from a version earlier than Version 3.22.11 to Version 3.22.11 or later, did you run the mysql_fix_privilege_tables script? If not, do so. The structure of the grant tables changed with MySQL Version 3.22.11 when the GRANT statement became functional. If you can't get your password to work, remember that you must use the PASSWORD() function if you set the password with the INSERT, UPDATE, or SET PASSWORD statements. The PASSWORD() function is unnecessary if you specify the password using the GRANT ... INDENTIFIED BY statement or the mysqladmin password command. localhost is a synonym for your local hostname, and is also the default host to which clients try to connect if you specify no host explicitly. However, connections to localhost do not work if you are running on a system that uses MIT-pthreads (localhost connections are made using Unix sockets, which are not supported by MIT-pthreads). To avoid this problem on such systems, you should use the --host option to name the server host explicitly. This will make a TCP/IP connection to the mysqld serve

Question - 63 : - In which order do you perform an upgrade to SQL Server 2005 for replicated databases?

Answer - 63 : - Distributor, Publisher, then Subscriber. You always perform an upgrade in this order: distributor, publisher, subscriber.

Question - 64 : - optimization tips?

Answer - 64 : - If you have enough RAM, you could remove all swap devices. Some operating systems will use a swap device in some contexts even if you have free memory. Use the --skip-locking MySQL option to avoid external locking. Note that this will not impact MySQL's functionality as long as you only run one server. Just remember to take down the server (or lock relevant parts) before you run myisamchk. On some system this switch is mandatory because the external locking does not work in any case. The --skip-locking option is on by default when compiling with MIT-pthreads, because flock() isn't fully supported by MIT-pthreads on all platforms. It's also on default for Linux as Linux file locking are not yet safe. The only case when you can't use --skip-locking is if you run multiple MySQL servers (not clients) on the same data, or run myisamchk on the table without first flushing and locking the mysqld server tables first. You can still use LOCK TABLES/UNLOCK TABLES even if you are using --skip-locking 12.2.1 How Compiling and Linking Affects the Speed of MySQL Most of the following tests are done on Linux with the MySQL benchmarks, but they should give some indication for other operating systems and workloads. You get the fastest executable when you link with -static. On Linux, you will get the fastest code when compiling with pgcc and -O6. To compile `sql_yacc.cc' with these options, you need about 200M memory because gcc/pgcc needs a lot of memory to make all functions inline. You should also set CXX=gcc when configuring MySQL to avoid inclusion of the libstdc++ library (it is not needed). Note that with some versions of pgcc, the resulting code will only run on true Pentium processors, even if you use the compiler option that you want the resulting code to be working on all x586 type processors (like AMD). By just using a better compiler and/or better compiler options you can get a 10-30 % speed increase in your application. This is particularly important if you compile the SQL server yourself! We have tested both the Cygnus CodeFusion and Fujitsu compilers, but when we tested them, neither was sufficiently bug free to allow MySQL to be compiled with optimizations on. When you compile MySQL you should only include support for the character sets that you are going

Question - 65 : - how to Install a MySQL Binary Distribution?

Answer - 65 : - You need the following tools to install a MySQL binary distribution: GNU gunzip to uncompress the distribution. A reasonable tar to unpack the distribution. GNU tar is known to work. Sun tar is known to have problems. An alternative installation method under Linux is to use RPM (RedHat Package Manager) distributions. If you run into problems, PLEASE ALWAYS USE mysqlbug when posting questions to mysql@lists.mysql.com. Even if the problem isn't a bug, mysqlbug gathers system information that will help others solve your problem. By not using mysqlbug, you lessen the likelihood of getting a solution to your problem! You will find mysqlbug in the `bin' directory after you unpack the distribution. The basic commands you must execute to install and use a MySQL binary distribution are: shell> groupadd mysql shell> useradd -g mysql mysql shell> cd /usr/local shell> gunzip < /path/to/mysql-VERSION-OS.tar.gz | tar xvf - shell> ln -s mysql-VERSION-OS mysql shell> cd mysql shell> scripts/mysql_install_db shell> chown -R mysql /usr/local/mysql shell> chgrp -R mysql /usr/local/mysql shell> bin/safe_mysqld --user=mysql & You can add new users using the bin/mysql_setpermission script if you install the DBI and Msql-Mysql-modules Perl modules. A more detailed description follows. Pick the directory under which you want to unpack the distribution, and move into it. In the example below, we unpack the distribution under `/usr/local' and create a directory `/usr/local/mysql' into which MySQL is installed. (The following instructions therefore assume you have permission to create files in `/usr/local'. If that directory is protected, you will need to perform the installation as root.)

Question - 66 : - When you create a table, and then run SHOW CREATE TABLE on it, you occasionally get different results than what you typed in. What does MySQL modify in your newly created tables?

Answer - 66 : - 1. VARCHARs with length less than 4 become CHARs 2. CHARs with length more than 3 become VARCHARs. 3. NOT NULL gets added to the columns declared as PRIMARY KEYs 4. Default values such as NULL are specified for each column



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