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Chapter 18- Body Fluids and Circulation Interview Questions Answers

Question 1 : Name the components of the formed elements in the blood and mention one major function of each of them.

Answer 1 :

The components of the formed elements in blood are as follows:

  1. Erythrocytes or Red blood cells – They carry oxygen and contain the pigment, haemoglobin. Haemoglobin reacts with oxygen to form Oxyhaemoglobin that carries oxygen to areas that are deprived of oxygen in the body.
  2. Leucocytes or white blood cells – Lymphocytes are known to synthesize antibodies that neutralizes or kills germs. Neutrophils acts as a defense mechanism against bacteria known as phagocytosis.
  3. Thrombocytes or blood platelets – They aid in coagulation of blood

Question 2 : What is the importance of plasma proteins?

Answer 2 :

Significance of plasma proteins:
Some of the plasma proteins are

  1. Globulins – They are involved in the defense mechanism of the body, and are also referred to as immunoglobulins
  2. Albumins –They aid in maintaining the osmotic balance of the body
  3. Fibrinogens – it plays a significant role in blood coagulation

Question 3 :

Match Column I with Column II :

Column I

Column II

(a) Eosinophils

(i) Coagulation

(b) RBC

(ii) Universal Recipient

(c) AB Group

(iii) Resist Infections

(d) Platelets

(iv) Contraction of Heart

(e) Systole

(v) Gas transport

Answer 3 :

Column I

Column II

(a) Eosinophils

(iii) Resist Infections

(b) RBC

(v) Gas transport

(c) AB Group

(ii) Universal Recipient

(d) Platelets

(i) Coagulation

(e) Systole

(iv) Contraction of Heart

Question 4 : Why do we consider blood as a connective tissue?

Answer 4 :

Blood is a connective tissue as it is mesodermally derived and contains an extra-cellular matrix known as plasma. It is abundant and a widely distributed tissue in the body. Connective tissues link and bind, providing support to other organs of the body thereby transporting oxygen and other nutrients within the body, eliminating waste products from the body and flows throughout the body. Hence, it is considered as a connective tissue.

Question 5 : What is the difference between lymph and blood?

Answer 5 :

The difference betweenlymph and blood is as follows:

Lymph

Blood

It is a white tissue fluid

It is a red liquid connective tissue

Lymph flows in the lymph vessels

Blood flows in the blood vessels such as capillaries, arteries and veins

It contains white blood cells known as lymphocytes

Blood contains red blood cells, haemoglobin, platelets and white blood cells

The exchange of nutrients and gases between the blood and cells takes place through the lymph

Blood transports gases and other nutrients to the body.

Question 6 :
What is meant by double circulation? What is its significance?

Answer 6 :

Double circulation, asthe name suggests, is where the blood circulates twice in the heart. Doublecirculation is possible as the heart is divided into four chambers, the rightand the left halves by the atrio-ventricular septum.

The two circulationsare:

  1. Pulmonary circulation
    • Blood in the right ventricle is pumped into the pulmonary arteries
    • For oxygenation, these pulmonary arteries transport deoxygenated blood to the lungs
    • The oxygenated blood is then sent to the left atrium from the lungs through the pulmonary veins
    • This type of circulation of blood is referred to as pulmonary circulation where blood is pumped via pulmonary blood vessels.
  1. Systemic circulation
    • It is a term used to refer to the major circulation of the body
    • Oxygenated blood is pumped from the left ventricle into the aorta
    • Furthermore, it is carried by the arteries, arterioles and the linkage of blood capillaries
    • Simultaneously, deoxygenated blood is accumulated in the right atrium through the inferior and superior vena cava
    • This circulation supplies nutrients and oxygen and carries away carbon dioxide and other toxic substances for elimination

Importance of doublecirculation:

  • This type of circulation checks and prevents the mixing of oxygenated and deoxygenated blood
  • In double circulation, oxygen is utilized efficiently

 

Question 7 :
Write the differences between:

(a) Blood and Lymph
(b) Open and Closed system of circulation
(c) Systole and Diastole
(d) P-wave and T-wave

Answer 7 :

The differences are asfollows:

(a) Blood and Lymph

Lymph

Blood

It is a white tissue fluid

It is a red liquid connective tissue

Lymph flows in the lymph vessels

Blood flows in the blood vessels such as capillaries, arteries and veins

It contains white blood cells known as lymphocytes

Blood contains red blood cells, haemoglobin, platelets and white blood cells

The exchange of nutrients and gases between the blood and cells takes place through the lymph

Blood transports gases and other nutrients to the body.


(b) Open and Closedsystem of circulation

Open system of circulation

Closed system of circulation

Blood that is pumped by the heart passes through the large vessels into the open spaces or body cavities(sinuses)

Blood pumped by the heart flows via the closed network of the blood vessels

Blood flow is not regulated in this type of circulation

Blood flow is regulated by the valves in closed system of circulation

This circulation is slower and less efficient

This circulation is more rapid and efficient comparitively

Example – it is found in molluscs, arthropods

Example – it is found in chordates and annelids


(c) Systole and Diastole

Systole

Diastole

Systole is the contraction of the chambers of the heart

Diastole is the relaxation of the chambers of the heart

It causes an increase in the blood pressure within the heart

It causes the blood pressure to decline in the heart

Blood is pumped out of the chambers

Blood is received by the chambers


(d) P-wave and T-wave

P-wave

T-wave

P-wave depicts the depolarization or electrical excitation of the atria

T-wave depicts the repolarization of the ventricles

Blood is pumped into the ventricles

Blood is received by the atria

 

Question 8 : Describe the evolutionary change in the pattern of heart among the vertebrates.

Answer 8 :

An evolutionary change in the pattern of heart among the vertebrates has been observed through careful analysis. Vertebrates possess a muscular heart, it is chambered. They have evolved from having a two-chambered heart(fish) to possessing a four-chambered heart(mammals).

A fish has a two-chambered heart. It pumps deoxygenated blood to the gills where it is oxygenated and sent to the body. The blood that is oxygenated is then carried to the heart.

Three-chambered hearts are found in amphibians – a ventricle and 2 atria(left atrium and right atrium). The left atrium receives oxygenated blood from the respiratory organs while deoxygenated blood is received by the right atrium from the organs of the body. But, both types of blood are eventually mixed in the ventricle, hence the body receives mixed blood.

Half septum in reptiles divides the ventricle partially. But in birds, crocodiles and mammals, the heart is completely segregated into halves hence deoxygenated and oxygenated blood are separated.

A structural modification in the hearts of fish up till mammals is observed checking that oxygen-rich blood is supplied to the body while the four-chambered heart ensures that the blood flow is synchronized. As the structure of heart has evolved, the type of circulation also depends on it, if it is single or double circulation.

Question 9 : Why do we call our heart myogenic?

Answer 9 :

The term ‘myo’ refers to muscle and ‘genic’ refers to originating from. The altered cardiac muscles or the nodal tissues of the heart – the sino-atrial or the sinus node (SA node) is capable of generating an impulse that extends over the heart wall which results in a heartbeat. As the cardiac impulse initiates in the cardiac muscles, it is referred to as myogenic.

Question 10 : Sino-atrial node is called the pacemaker of our heart. Why?

Answer 10 :

The sino-atrial or the sinus node (SAN) is a specialized bundle of neurons generating action potential which produces a cardiac impulse without any exterior stimuli i.e., it is auto excitable. SAN can generate a maximum action potential of approximately 70 to 75 in a minute. It is responsible to initiate and maintain the rhythmic contractile activity of the heart. Due to these capabilities, SAN is referred to as the pacemaker.


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Chapter 18- Body Fluids and Circulation Contributors

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