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Chapter 20- Locomotion and Movement Interview Questions Answers

Question 1 :
Draw the diagram of a sarcomere of skeletal.

Answer 1 :

Question 2 :
Define sliding filament theory of muscle contraction.

Answer 2 :

Sliding filament theory states that contraction of a muscle fibre takes place by the sliding of the thin filaments over thick filaments.

Question 3 :
Describe the important steps in muscle contraction.

Answer 3 :

Steps in muscle contraction :

A nerve impulse arriving at the neuromuscular junctions initiates the contractile response.

  1. A neurotransmitter released at the neuromuscular junction enters the sacromere through its membrane channel.
  2. The opening of the channel also results in the inflow of Na+ ions inside the sacromere and generates an action potential that travels along the entire length of the muscle fibres.
  3. The sacromere reticulum releases Ca++ ions, which bind with the specific sites present on the troponin component of the thin filament.
  4. Asa result of conformational changes in the troponin, the active sites on the F-actin are exposed.
  5. These are the active sites specific to myosin head, which exhibits myosin- dependent ATPase activity.
  6. The myosin heads acts as hooks and attach to F-actin to form cross bridges.
  7. When the muscle is stimulated to contract, the cross bridges move, pulling the two filaments past each other.
  8. When thousands of actin and myosin filaments interact this way the entire muscle cell shortens.

Question 4 :
Write true or false. If false, change the statement so that it is true.
(a) Actin is present in thin filament.
(b) H-zone of striated muscle fibre represents both thick and thin filaments..
(c) Human skeleton has 206 bones.
(d) There are 11 pairs of ribs in man.
(e) Sternum is present on the ventral side of the body.

Answer 4 :

(i) True
(ii) False : H-zone of striated muscle fibre represents only thick filaments.
(iii) True
(iv) False: There are 12 pairs of ribs in man.
(v) True

Question 5 :
Write the differences between.
(a) Actin and Myosin
(b) Red and White muscles
(c) Pectoral and Pelvic girdle

Answer 5 :

The differences are asfollows:

a) Actin and myosin

Actin

Myosin

Thin filaments (I-bands) of the myofilament are formed

Thick filaments (A-bands) of the myofilament are formed

It is built of globular actin monomers

It is built of meromyosin monomers

The regulatory proteins Tropnin and tropomyosin are linked with the actin

The regulatory proteins are not linked, instead each of the meromyosin is built of four light chains and two identical heavy chains


b) Red and whitemuscles

Parameters

Red muscles

White muscles

Myoglobin content

High

Low

Amount of sarcoplasmic reticulum

Moderate

High

Fibers

Narrow and thin

Broad and thick

Mitochondria

Possess many

Few

Fatigue

Not fatigued

Fatigued

Type of respiration from which energy is derived

Aerobic

Anaerobic


c) Pectoral and Pelvicgirdle

Pectoral girdle

Pelvic girdle

Pectoral girdle is called as the shoulder girdle

Pelvic girdle is called as the hip girdle

Each part/half of the girdle consists of two bones – clavicle and scapula

Each part/half of the girdle consists of three bones – ischium, ilium and pubis

Forelimb articulation is offered

Hindlimb articulation is offered

Head of the humerus articulates with the glenoid cavity of the pectoral girdle

Head of the femur articulates with the acetabulum of the pelvic girdle

 

Question 6 :
Match Column I with Column II
Column I                                            Column II
(a) Smooth muscle                         (i) Myoglobin
(b) Tropomyosin                            (ii) Thin filament
(c) Red muscle                               (iii) Sutures
(d) Skull                                         (iv) Involuntary

Answer 6 :

(a)–----------  (iv) Involuntary
(b)-------------(ii) Thin filament
(c) -----------  (i) Myoglobin
(d) –------------ (iii) Sutures

Question 7 :
What are the different types of movements exhibited by the cells of human body ?

Answer 7 :

Ciliary movements, amoeboid movement, muscular movement.

Question 8 :
How do you distinguish between a skeletal muscle and a cardiac muscle ?

Answer 8 :

The differencesbetween a skeletal muscle and a cardiac muscle is as follows:

Skeletal muscle

Cardiac muscle

Linked to the primary bones

Located in the walls of the heart

Voluntary in nature

Involuntary in nature

Peripherally located nucleus

Centrally located nucleus

The muscle fibers of the skeletal muscles are unbranched

The muscle fibers of the cardiac muscles are branched

Intercalated discs are not found in the Muscle fibers of the skeletal muscles

Intercalated discs are found in the muscle fibers of the cardiac muscles

Brings about the locomotory actions of the body and maintains body posture

Responsible for the movement/motion of the heart

 

Question 9 :
Name the type of joint between the following:
(a) Atlas/Axis
(b) Carpal/metacarpal of thumb
(c) Between phalanges
(d) Femur/acetabulum
(e) Between cranial bones
(f) Between pubic bones in the pelvic girdle

Answer 9 :

(a) Pivot joint
(b) Saddlejoint
(c) Gliding joint
(d) Ball and socket joint
(e) Fibrous joint
(f) Cartilagenousjoint

Question 10 :
Fill in the blank spaces:
(a) All mammals (except a few) have ………….. cervical vertebra.
(b) The number of phalanges in each limb of human is …………
(c) Thin filament of myofibril contains 2 ‘F’ actins and two other proteins namely ………. and ……………….
(d) In a muscle fibre Ca++ is stored in ……………
(e) …….. and ……….. pairs of ribs are called floating ribs.
(f) The human cranium is made of ……………. bones.

Answer 10 :

(a) Seven

(b) Fourteen

(c) Troponin, tropomyosin

(d) Sarcoplasmic reticulum

(e) Eleventh, twelfth

(f) Eight


Selected

 

Chapter 20- Locomotion and Movement Contributors

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