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Chapter 11 Paths to Modernization Interview Questions Answers

Question 1 :
What were the major developments before the Meiji restoration that made it possible for Japan to modernise rapidly?

Answer 1 :

The following developments helped in the modernization of Japan before the Meiji restoration:

  1. Peasants were not allowed to carry arms, only Samurai could carry swords now.
  2. Growth of population led to the growth of commercial economy.
  3. Efforts were made to develop silk industry.
  4. People developed reading habits.
  5. The export of precious metals restricted.
  6. Theater and arts were patronized in towns.
  7. Land surveys were made.

Question 2 :
Discuss how daily life was transformed as Japan developed?

Answer 2 :

Earlier in Japan, the patriarchal household system prevailed. In it, many generations lived together under the control of the head of the family. New ideas of the family spread. People became more affluent. Homu, the new home was a nuclear family where husband and wife lived together. The new concept of domesticity generated demands for new types of domestic goods and new forms of farming.

Question 3 :
How did the Qing dynasty try and meet the challenge posed by the Western powers?

Answer 3 :

The Qing dynasty could not meet the challenges posed by the Western powers. They utterly failed. The Qing dynasty also demanded change in the country. But they also failed in this endeavour.

Question 4 :
What were the Sun Yat-sen’s Three Principles?

Answer 4 :

The Three Principles were :

  1. Nationalism
  2. Democracy
  3. Socialism

Question 5 :
Did Japan’s policy of rapid industrialization lead to wars with its neighbors and destruction of the environment?

Answer 5 :

The rapid industrialization of Japan led to wars and destruction of the environment due to the following reasons:

  1. The development of industries affected the environment in many ways.
  2. It led to the exploitation of natural resources.
  3. To obtain raw material and for the consumption of furnished products the need of colonies was felt.

Question 6 :
Do you think that Mao Zedong and the Communist Party of China were successful in liberating China and laying the basis for its current success?

Answer 6 :

It is true that Mao Zedong and the Communist Party of China were successful in liberating China and laying basis for its current success. In 1925, after the death of Sun Yat-sen, the Guomindang was headed by Chiang-Kai- shek. Previously, the Communist Party of China was founded in 1921. He tried his best to strengthen the rule of the Guomindang. But no initiatives were taken to achieve the three revolutionary principles of Sun Yat-sen, i.e. nationalism, democracy and socialism. He also made an attempt to raise a new class of landlords. They always exploited the peasantry. Mao Zedong, a Communist leader formed the Red Army. It was formed to strengthen the Peasant Movement. He became its chairperson in 1930. He also started a guerilla war against Chiang-Kai-shek’s army. He defeated Chiang’s army four times. But for the fifth time, he left the idea of war and started the Long March.

Mao Zedong formed a Communist front against Japan in 1935. It was his opinion that his struggle against Japan would make his mass movement more effective. He suggested that a United Front be formed in collaboration with Red Army. But Chiang completely denied his proposal and he was imprisoned by his own soldiers. The increasing power of Mao Zedong worried Chiang-Kai-shek. He was not interested in working with him. Even then he came with Mao in the war against Japan. After the end of war, Mao put the proposal of coalition govt before Chiang but he declined. Mao continued his struggle and was elected the chairman of the Chinese govt.

Chiang Kai-shek was worried about increasing power of Mao Zedong. After many persuasions he became ready to stand by Mao against Japan. In 1949, Chiang fled to Farmosa to seek asylum. Mao was elected the Chairman of the Chinese government. He held his office till his death.


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