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Chapter 10 – Comparative Development Experiences of India and its Neighbors Interview Questions Answers

Question 1 : Mention some examples of regional and economic groupings.

Answer 1 :

Every country aims to strengthen its own domestic territory. The nations are forming regional and global economic groupings such as:

  1. SAARC. It has 8 countries of South Asia.
  2.  EU has 25 independent states based on European Communities.
  3.  ASEAN. It has 5 countries of South East Asia.
  4.  G-8 (Group of Eight). It has 8 countries.
  5.  G-20 (Group of Twenty). It consists of 19 world’s largest economies.

Question 2 : What are the various means by which countries are trying to strengthen their own domestic economies?

Answer 2 :

Countries are trying to strengthen their own domestic economies by:

  1.  forming regional apd global economic groupings like SAARC, EU, ASEAN, G-8, G-20, etc.
  2.  By having economic reforms.

Question 3 :  What similar development strategies have India and Pakistan followed for their respective developmental paths?

Answer 3 :

Similar developmental strategies of India and Pakistan are:

  1.  India has the largest democracy of the world. Pakistan has authoritarian militarist political power structure.
  2.  Both India and Pakistan followed a mixed economy approach. Both countries created a large public sector and planned to raise public expenditure on social development.

Question 4 : Explain the Great Leap Forward campaign of China as initiated in 1958.

Answer 4 :

Communist China or the People’s Republic of China, as it is formally known, came into being in 1949. There is only one party, i.e., the Communist Party of China that holds the power there. All the sectors of economy including various enterprises and all land owned by individuals was brought under governmental control. A programme called ‘The Great Leap Forward’ was launched in 1958. Its aim was to industrialise the country on a large scale and in as short a time as possible. For this, people were eyeji encouraged to set up industries in their backyards. In villages, village Communes or cooperatives were set up. Communes means collective cultivation of land. Around 26000 communes covered almost all the farm population in 1958.
The Great Leap Forward programme faced many problems. These were:

  1.  In the earlier phase, a severe drought occurred in China and it killed some 3 crore people.
  2.  Soviet Russia was a comrade to communist China, but they had border dispute. As a result, Russia withdrew its professionals who had been helping China in its industrialisation bid.

Question 5 : China’s rapid industrial growth can be traced back to its reforms in 1978. Do you agree? Elucidate.

Answer 5 :

Starting 1978, several reforms were introduced in phases in China. First, agriculture, foreign trade and investment sectors were taken up. Commune lands were divided into small plots. These were allotted to individual households for cultivation.
The reforms were expanded to industrial sector. Private firms were allowed to set up manufacturing units. Also, local collectives or cooperatives could produce goods. This meant competition between the newly sanctioned private sector and the old state-owned enterprises.
This kind of reform in China brought in the necessity of dual pricing. This meant the farmers and industrial units were to buy and sell fixed quantities of raw material and products on the basis of prices fixed by the government. As production increased, the material transacted through the open market also rose in quantity. Special Economic Zones (SEZs) were set up in China to attract foreign investors.

Question 6 : Describe the path of developmental initiatives taken by Pakistan for its economic development.

Answer 6 :

The developmental initiatives taken by Pakistan were:

  1.  In the late 1950s and 1960s, Pakistan introduced a variety of regulated policy framework (for import substitution industrialisation). The policy combined tariff protection for manufacturing of consumer goods together with direct import controls on competing imports.
  2.  The introduction of Green Revolutioned led to mechanisation of agriculture. It finally led to a rise in the production of foodgrains. This changed the agrarian structure dramatically.
  3.  In the 1970s, nationalisation of capital good industries took place.
  4. In 1988, structural reforms were introduced. The thrust areas were denationalisation and en¬couragement to private sector.
  5.  Pakistan received financial support from western nations and remittances from emigrants to the Middle East. It helped in raising economic growth of the country.

Question 7 : What is the important implication of ‘one child norm’ in China?

Answer 7 : One-child norm introduced in China in the late 1970s is the major reason for low population growth. It is stated that this measure led to a decline in the sex ratio, that is, the proportion of females per 1000 males.

Question 8 : Mention the salient demographic indicators of China, Pakistan and India.

Answer 8 :

We shall compare some demographic indicators of India, China and Pakistan.

  1. The population of Pakistan is very small and accounts for roughly about one-tenth of China or India.
  2.  Though China is the largest nation geographically among the three, its density is the lowest.
  3.  The population growth is highest in Pakistan followed by India and China. One-child norm introduced in China in the late 1970s is the major reason for low population growth. They also state that this measure led to a decline in the sex ratio, that is, the proportion of females per 1000 males.
  4.  The sex ratio is low and biased against females in all the three countries. There is strong son- preference prevailing in 11 these countries.
  5.  The fertility rate is low in China and very high in Pakistan.
  6. Urbanisation is high in both Pakistan and China with India having 28 per cent of its people living in urban areas.

Question 9 : Compare and contrast India and China’s sectoral contribution towards GDP. What does it in¬dicate?

Answer 9 :

Sectoral Distribution of Output and Employment:

  1.  Agriculture Sector. China has more proportion of urban people than India. In China in the year 2009, with 54 per cent of its workforce engaged in agriculture, its contribution to GDP is 10 per cent. In India’s contribution of agriculture to GDP is at 17 per cent.
  2.  Industry and Service Sectors. In both India and China, the industry and service sectors have less proportion of workforce but contribute more in terms of output. In China, manufacturing contributes the highest to GDP at 46 per cent whereas in India it is the service sector which contributes the highest. Thus, China’s growth is mainly contributed by the manufacturing sector and India’s growth by service sector.

Question 10 : Mention the various indicators of human development.

Answer 10 :

Parameters of human development are:

  1.  HDI— (a) Value—higher the better. (b) Rank—lower the better.
  2.  Life expectancy—higher the better.
  3. Adult literacy rate—higher the better.
  4.  GDP per capita (PPP US $)—higher the better –
  5.  Percentage of population below poverty line (on $1 a day)—lower the better.
  6. Infant mortality rate (per 1000 live births)—lower the better.
  7.  Maternal mortality rate (per 100,000 live births)—lower the better.
  8.  Percentage of population having access to improved sanitation—higher the better.
  9.  Percentage of population having access to improved water source—higher the better.
  10.  Percentage of population which is undernourished (% of total) – lower the better.



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