- Chapter 1- The Solid State
- Chapter 3- Electrochemistry
- Chapter 4- Chemical Kinetics
- Chapter 5- Surface Chemistry
- Chapter 6- General Principles and Processes of Isolation of Elements
- Chapter 7- The p-Block Elements
- Chapter 8- The d and f Block Elements
- Chapter 9- Coordination Compounds
- Chapter 10- Haloalkanes and Haloarenes
- Chapter 11- Alcohols-Phenols and Ethers
- Chapter 12- Aldehydes-Ketones and Carboxylic Acids
- Chapter 13- Amines
- Chapter 14- Biomolecules
- Chapter 15- Polymers
- Chapter 16- Chemistry in Everyday Life

Chapter 1- The Solid State |
Chapter 3- Electrochemistry |
Chapter 4- Chemical Kinetics |
Chapter 5- Surface Chemistry |
Chapter 6- General Principles and Processes of Isolation of Elements |
Chapter 7- The p-Block Elements |
Chapter 8- The d and f Block Elements |
Chapter 9- Coordination Compounds |
Chapter 10- Haloalkanes and Haloarenes |
Chapter 11- Alcohols-Phenols and Ethers |
Chapter 12- Aldehydes-Ketones and Carboxylic Acids |
Chapter 13- Amines |
Chapter 14- Biomolecules |
Chapter 15- Polymers |
Chapter 16- Chemistry in Everyday Life |

Calculate the mass percentage ofbenzene (C_{6}H_{6}) and carbon tetrachloride (CCl_{4}) if 22 g of benzene is dissolved in 122 g ofcarbon tetrachloride.

**Answer
1** :

= 84.72%

Calculate the mole fraction ofbenzene in solution containing 30% by mass in carbon tetrachloride.

**Answer
2** :

Let the total mass of thesolution be 100 g and the mass of benzene be 30 g.

∴Mass ofcarbon tetrachloride = (100 − 30)g

= 70 g

Molar mass of benzene (C_{6}H_{6}) = (6 × 12 + 6 × 1) g mol^{−1}

= 78 g mol^{−1}

= 0.3846 mol

Molar mass of carbon tetrachloride (CCl_{4}) = 1 × 12 + 4 × 35.5

= 154 g mol^{−1}

= 0.4545 mol

Thus, the molefraction of C_{6}H_{6} is given as:

Calculate the molarity of each ofthe following solutions: **(a)** 30g of Co(NO_{3})_{2}. 6H_{2}O in 4.3 L of solution **(b)** 30 mL of 0.5 M H_{2}SO_{4} diluted to 500 mL.

**Answer
3** :

Molarity is given by:

**a)** Molar mass of Co (NO_{3})_{2}.6H_{2}O = 59 + 2 (14 + 3 × 16) + 6 × 18

= 291 g mol^{−1}

∴Molesof Co (NO_{3})_{2}.6H_{2}O

= 0.103 mol

Therefore, molarity

= 0.023 M

**(b)** Number of moles present in 1000 mL of 0.5 M H_{2}SO_{4} = 0.5 mol

∴Numberof moles present in 30 mL of 0.5 M H_{2}SO_{4}

= 0.015 mol

Therefore, molarity

= 0.03 M

Calculate the mass of urea (NH_{2}CONH_{2}) required in making 2.5 kg of 0.25 molalaqueous solution.

**Answer
4** :

Molar mass of urea (NH_{2}CONH_{2}) = 2(1 × 14 + 2 × 1) + 1 × 12 + 1 × 16

= 60 g mol^{−1}

0.25 molar aqueous solution of urea means:

1000 g ofwater contains 0.25 mol = (0.25 × 60)g of urea

= 15 g ofurea

That is,

(1000 + 15) g of solution contains 15 g of urea

= 36.95 g

= 37 g of urea (approximately)

Hence, mass of urea required = 37g

Calculate **(a)** molality **(b)** molarityand **(c)** mole fraction of KI if the density of 20% (mass/mass)aqueous KI is 1.202 g mL^{-1}.

**Answer
5** :

**(a)** Molarmass of KI = 39 + 127 = 166 g mol^{−1}

20% (mass/mass)aqueous solution of KI means 20 g of KI is present in 100 g of solution.

That is,

20 g of KI is present in (100 −20) g of water = 80 g of water

= 1.506 m

= 1.51 m (approximately)

**(b)** Itis given that the density of the solution = 1.202 g mL^{−1}

= 83.19 mL

= 83.19 × 10^{−3} L

= 1.45 M

Moles of water

Therefore, mole fraction of KI

= 0.0263

H_{2}S, a toxic gas withrotten egg like smell, is used for the qualitative analysis. If the solubilityof H_{2}S in water at STP is 0.195 m, calculate Henry’s law constant.

**Answer
6** :

It is given that thesolubility of H_{2}S in water at STP is 0.195 m, i.e., 0.195 mol of H_{2}Sis dissolved in 1000 g of water.

= 55.56 mol

= 0.0035

At STP, pressure (*p*) =0.987 bar

According to Henry’s law:

*p* = K_{H}*x*

= 282 bar

Henry’s law constant for CO_{2} inwater is 1.67 × 10^{8} Pa at 298 K. Calculate the quantity of CO_{2} in500 mL of soda water when packed under 2.5 atm CO_{2} pressure at298 K.

**Answer
7** :

It is given that:

K_{H} = 1.67 × 10^{8} Pa

= 2.5 atm = 2.5 × 1.01325 ×10^{5} Pa

= 2.533125 × 10^{5} Pa

According to Henry’s law:

= 0.00152

We can write,

[Since, is negligible as compared to]

In 500 mL of soda water, thevolume of water = 500 mL

[Neglecting the amount of sodapresent]

We can write:

500 mL of water = 500 g of water

= 27.78 mol of water

Now,

Hence, quantity of CO_{2} in500 mL of soda water = (0.042 × 44)g

= 1.848 g

The vapour pressure of pureliquids A and B are 450 and 700 mm Hg respectively, at 350 K. Find out thecomposition of the liquid mixture if total vapour pressure is 600 mm Hg. Alsofind the composition of the vapour phase.

**Answer
8** :

= 0.70

Vapour pressure of pure water at298 K is 23.8 mm Hg. 50 g of urea (NH_{2}CONH_{2}) is dissolvedin 850 g of water. Calculate the vapour pressure of water for this solution andits relative lowering.

**Answer
9** :

Hence, the vapour pressure ofwater in the given solution is 23.4 mm of Hg and its relative lowering is0.0173.

Boiling point of water at 750 mmHg is 99.63°C. How much sucrose is to be added to 500 g of water such that itboils at 100°C. Molal elevation constant for water is 0.52 K kg mol^{−1}.

**Answer
10** :

Here, elevation of boiling pointΔ*T _{b}* = (100 + 273) − (99.63 + 273)

= 0.37 K

Mass of water, *w*_{l} =500 g

Molar mass of sucrose (C_{12}H_{22}O_{11}), *M*_{2} =11 × 12 + 22 × 1 + 11 × 16

= 342 g mol^{−1}

Molal elevation constant, *K _{b}* =0.52 K kg mol

We know that:

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