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Chapter 2- Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants Interview Questions Answers

Question 1 : Name the parts of an angiosperm flower in which development of male and female gametophyte take place.

Answer 1 : The male gametophyte or the pollen grain develops inside the pollen chamber of the anther, whereas the female gametophyte (also known as the embryo sac) develops inside the nucellus of the ovule from the functional megaspore.

Question 2 : Differentiate between microsporogenesis and megasporogenesis. Which type of cell division occurs during these events? Name the structures formed at the end of these two events.

Answer 2 :

(a)

Microsporogenesis

Megasporogenesis

1.

It is the process of the formation of microspore tetrads from a microspore mother cell through meiosis.

It is the process of the formation of the four megaspores from a megaspore mother cell in the region of the nucellus through meiosis

2.

It occurs inside the pollen sac of the anther.

It occurs inside the ovule.


(b) Both events (microsporogenesis and megasporogenesis) involve the process of meiosis or reduction division which results in the formation of haploid gametes from the microspore and megaspore mother cells.
(c) Microsporogenesis results in the formation of haploid microspores from a diploid microspore mother cell. On the other hand, megasporogenesis results in the formation of haploid megaspores from a diploid megaspore mother cell.

Question 3 :
Arrange the following terms in the correct developmental sequence: Pollen grain, sporogenous tissue, microspore tetrad, pollen mother cell, male gametes

Answer 3 :

The correct development sequence is as follows:
Sporogenous tissue – pollen mother cell – microspore tetrad – Pollen grain – male gamete
During the development of microsporangium, each cell of the sporogenous tissue acts as a pollen mother cell and gives rise to a microspore tetrad, containing four haploid microspores by the process of meiosis (microsporogenesis). As the anther matures, these microspores dissociate and develop into pollen grains. The pollen grains mature and give rise to male gametes.

Question 4 : With a neat, labelled diagram, describe the parts of a typical angiosperm ovule.

Answer 4 : An ovule is a female megasporangium where the formation of megaspores takes place.

                                       
The various parts of an ovule are –
(1) Funiculus – It is a stalk-like structure which represents the point of attachment of the ovule to the placenta of the ovary.
(2) Hilum – It is the point where the body of the ovule is attached to the funiculus.
(3) Integuments –They are the outer layers surrounding the ovule that provide protection to the developing embryo.
(4) Micropyle – It is a narrow pore formed by the projection of integuments. It marks the point where the pollen tube enters the ovule at the time of fertilization.
(5) Nucellus – It is a mass of the parenchymatous tissue surrounded by the integuments from the outside. The nucellus provides nutrition to the developing embryo. The embryo sac is located inside the nucellus.
(6) Chalazal – It is the based swollen part of the nucellus from where the integuments originate.

Question 5 : What is meant by monosporic development of female gametophyte?

Answer 5 : The female gametophyte or the embryo sac develops from a single functional megaspore. This is known as monosporic development of the female gametophyte. In most flowering plants, a single megaspore mother cell present at the micropylar pole of the nucellus region of the ovule undergoes meiosis to produce four haploid megaspores. Later, out of these four megaspores, only one functional megaspore develops into the female gametophyte, while the remaining three degenerate.

Question 6 : With a neat diagram explain the 7-celled, 8-nucleate nature of the female gametophyte.

Answer 6 : The female gametophyte (embryo sac) develops from a single functional megaspore. This megaspore undergoes three successive mitotic divisions to form eight nucleate embryo sacs.

                                                      

The first mitotic division in the megaspore forms two nuclei. One nucleus moves towards the micropylar end while the other nucleus moves towards the chalazal end. Then, these nuclei divide at their respective ends and re-divide to form eight nucleate stages. As a result, there are four nuclei each at both the ends i.e., at the micropylar and the chalazal end in the embryo sac. At the micropylar end, out of the four nuclei only three differentiate into two synergids and one egg cell. Together they are known as the egg apparatus. Similarly, at the chalazal end, three out of four nuclei differentiates as antipodal cells. The remaining two cells (of the micropylar and the chalazal end) move towards the centre and are known as the polar nuclei, which are situated in a large central cell. Hence, at maturity, the female gametophyte appears as a 7-celled structure, though it has 8 nucleate.

Question 7 : What are chasmogamous flowers? Can cross-pollination occur in cleistogamous flowers? Give reasons for your answer.

Answer 7 :

There are two types of flowers present in plants namely Oxalis and Viola − chasmogamous and cleistogamous flowers. Chasmogamous flowers have exposed anthers and stigmata similar to the flowers of other species.
Cross-pollination cannot occur in cleistogamous flowers. This is because cleistogamous flowers never open at all. Also, the anther and the stigma lie close to each other in these flowers. Hence, only self-pollination is possible in these flowers.

Question 8 : Mention two strategies evolved to prevent self-pollination in flowers.

Answer 8 :

Self-pollination involves the transfer of pollen from the stamen to the pistil of the same flower. Two strategies that have evolved to prevent self-pollination in flowers are as follows:
(1) In certain plants, the stigma of the flower hasthecapability to prevent the germination of pollen grains and hence, prevent the growth of the pollen tube.It is a genetic mechanism to prevent self-pollination called self- incompatibility. Incompatibility may be between individuals of the same species or between individuals of different species. Thus, incompatibility prevents breeding.
(2) In some plants, the gynoecium matures before the androecium or vice-versa. This phenomenon is known as protogyny or protandry respectively. This prevents the pollen from coming in contact with the stigma of the same flower.

Question 9 : What is self-incompatibility? Why does self-pollination not lead to seed formation in self-incompatible species?

Answer 9 :

Self-incompatibility is a geneticmechanism in angiosperms that prevents self-pollination. It develops geneticincompatibility between individuals of the same species or between individualsof different species.

Theplants which exhibit this phenomenon have the ability to prevent germination ofpollen grains and thus, prevent the growth of the pollen tube on the stigma ofthe flower. This prevents the fusion of the gametes along with the developmentof the embryo. As a result, no seed formation takes place.

Question 10 : What is bagging technique? How is it useful in a plant breeding programme?

Answer 10 :

Various artificial hybridization techniques (under various crop improvement programmes) involve the removal of the anther from bisexual flowers without affecting the female reproductive part (pistil) through the process of emasculation. Then, these emasculated flowers are wrapped in bags to prevent pollination by unwanted pollen grains. This process is called bagging.
This technique is an important part of the plant breeding programme as it ensures that pollen grains of only desirable plants are used for fertilization of the stigma to develop the desired plant variety.


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