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Chapter 8- Human Health and Disease Interview Questions Answers

Question 1 : What are the various public health measures, which you would suggest as safeguard against infectious diseases?

Answer 1 :

Public health measures are preventive measures which are taken to check the spread of various infectious diseases. These measures should be taken to reduce the contact with infectious agents.
Some of these methods are:
(1) Maintenance of personal and public hygiene:It is one of the most important methods of preventing infectious diseases. This measure includes maintaining a clean body, consumption of healthy and nutritious food, drinking clean water, etc. Public hygienic includes proper disposal of waste material, excreta, periodic cleaning, and disinfection of water reservoirs.
(2) Isolation: To prevent the spread of air-borne diseases such as pneumonia, chicken pox, tuberculosis, etc., it is essential to keep the infected person in isolation to reduce the chances of spreading these diseases.
(3) Vaccination: Vaccination is the protection of the body from communicable diseases by administering some agent that mimics the microbe inside the body. It helps in providing passive immunizationto the body. Several vaccines are available against many diseases such as tetanus, polio, measles, mumps, etc.
(4) Vector Eradication: Various diseases such as malaria, filariasis, dengue, and chikungunya spread through vectors. Thus, these diseases can be prevented by providing a clean environment and by preventing the breeding of mosquitoes. This can be achieved by not allowing water to stagnate around residential areas. Also, measures like regular cleaning of coolers, use of mosquito nets and insecticides such as malathion in drains, ponds, etc. can be undertaken to ensure a healthy environment. Introducing fish such as Gambusia in ponds also controls the breeding of mosquito larvae in stagnant water.

Question 2 : In which way has the study of biology helped us to control infectious diseases?

Answer 2 : Various advancements that have occurred in the field of biology have helped us gain a better understanding to fight against various infectious diseases. Biology has helped us study the life cycle of various parasites, pathogens, and vectors along with the modes of transmission of various diseases and the measures for controlling them. Vaccination programmes against several infectious diseases such as small pox, chicken pox, tuberculosis, etc. have helped eradicate these diseases. Biotechnology has helped in the preparation of newer and safer drugs and vaccines. Antibiotics have also played an important role in treating infectious diseases.

Question 3 :
How does the transmission of each of the following diseases take place?

Answer 3 :

(a) Amoebiasis       (b) Malaria
(c) Ascariasis         (d) Pneumonia



Causative organism

Mode of transmission



Entamoeba histolytica

It is a vector-borne disease that spreads by the means of contaminated food and water. The vector involved in the transmission of this disease is the housefly.



Plasmodium sp.

It is a vector-borne disease that spreads by the biting of the female Anopheles mosquito.



Ascaris lumbricoides

It spreads via contaminated food and water.



Streptococcus pneumoniae

It spreads by the sputum of an infected person.

Question 4 : What measure would you take to prevent water-borne diseases?

Answer 4 : Water-borne diseases such as cholera, typhoid, hepatitis B, etc. spread ¬¬ by drinking contaminated water. These water-borne diseases can be prevented by ensuring proper disposal of sewage, excreta, periodic cleaning. Also, measures such as disinfecting community water reservoirs, boiling drinking water, etc. should be observed.

Question 5 : Discuss with your teacher what does ‘a suitable gene’ means, in the context of DNA vaccines.

Answer 5 : A ‘suitable gene’ refers to a specific DNA segment which can be injected into the cells of the host body to produce specific proteins. This protein kills the specific disease-causing organism in the host body and provides immunity.

Question 6 : Name the primary and secondary lymphoid organs.

Answer 6 :

(a) Primary lymphoid organs include the bone marrow and the thymus.
(b) Secondary lymphoid organs are the spleen, lymph nodes, tonsils, Peyer’s patches of small intestine, and appendix.

Question 7 :
The following are some well-known abbreviations, which have been used in this chapter. Expand each one to its full form:

Answer 7 :

(a) MALT
(b) CMI
(c) AIDS
(d) NACO
(e) HIV

(a) MALT- Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue
(b) CMI- Cell-Mediated Immunity
(c) AIDS- Acquired Immuno Deficiency Syndrome
(d) NACO- National AIDS Control Organization
(e) HIV- Human Immuno Deficiency virus

Question 8 :
Differentiate the following and give examples of each:

Answer 8 :

(a) Innate and acquired immunity      (b) Active and passive immunity

(a) Innate and acquired immunity

Innate immunity

Acquired immunity


It is a non−pathogen specific type of defense mechanism.


It is a pathogen specific type of defense mechanism.


It is inherited from parents and protects the individual since birth.


It is acquired after the birth of an individual.


It operates by providing barriers against the entry of foreign infectious agents.


It operates by producing primary and secondary responses, which are mediated by B­−lymphocytes and T-lymphocytes.


It does not have a specific memory.


It is characterized by an immunological memory.

(b) Active and passive immunity

Active immunity

Passive immunity


It is a type of acquired immunity in which the body produces its own antibodies against disease-causing antigens.


It is a type of acquired immunity in which readymade antibodies are transferred from one individual to another.


It has a long lasting effect.


It does not have long lasting effect.


It is slow. It takes time in producing antibodies and giving responses.


It is fast. It provides immediate relief.


Injecting microbes through vaccination inside the body is an example of active immunity.


Transfer of antibodies present in the mother’s milk to the infant is an example of passive immunity.

Question 9 : Draw a well-labelled diagram of an antibody molecule.

Answer 9 :

Question 10 : What are the various routes by which transmission of human immunodeficiency virus takes place?

Answer 10 :

AIDS (Acquired Immuno Deficiency Syndrome) is caused by the Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).
It has the following modes of transmission:
(a) Unprotected sexual contact with an infected person.
(b) Transfusion of blood from a healthy to an infected person.
(c) Sharing infected needles and syringes.
(d) From an infected mother to a child through the placenta.



Chapter 8- Human Health and Disease Contributors


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