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RD Chapter 1- Sets Ex-1.5 Interview Questions Answers

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Question 1 :
If A and B are two sets such that A ⊂ B, then Find:
(i) A ⋂ B
(ii) A ⋃ B

(i) A ∩ B
A ∩ B denotes A intersection B. Common elements of A and B consists in this set.
Given A ⊂ B, every element of A are already an element of B.
∴ A ∩ B = A
(ii) A ⋃ B
A ∪ B denotes A union B. Elements of either A or B or in both A and B consist in this set.
Given A ⊂ B, B is having all elements including elements of A.
∴ A ∪ B = B

Question 2 :
If A = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5}, B = {4, 5, 6, 7, 8}, C = {7, 8, 9, 10, 11} and D = {10, 11, 12, 13, 14}. Find:
(i) A ∪ B
(ii) A ∪ C
(iii) B ∪ C
(iv) B ∪ D
(v) A ∪ B ∪ C
(vi) A ∪ B ∪ D
(vii) B ∪ C ∪ D
(viii) A ∩ (B ∪ C)
(ix) (A ∩ B) ∩ (B ∩ C)
(x) (A ∪ D) ∩ (B ∪ C).

In general X ∪ Y = {a: a ∈ X or a ∈ Y}
X ∩ Y = {a: a ∈ X and a ∈ Y}.
(i) A = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5}
B = {4, 5, 6, 7, 8}
A ∪ B = {x: x ∈ A or x ∈ B}
= {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8}

(ii) A = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5}
C = {7, 8, 9, 10, 11}
A ∪ C = {x: x ∈ A or x ∈ C}
= {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11}

(iii) B = {4, 5, 6, 7, 8}
C = {7, 8, 9, 10, 11}
B ∪ C = {x: x ∈ B or x ∈ C}
= {4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11}

(iv) B = {4, 5, 6, 7, 8}
D = {10, 11, 12, 13, 14}
B ∪ D = {x: x ∈ B or x ∈ D}
= {4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14}

(v) A = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5}
B = {4, 5, 6, 7, 8}
C = {7, 8, 9, 10, 11}
A ∪ B = {x: x ∈ A or x ∈ B}
= {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8}
A ∪ B ∪ C = {x: x ∈ A ∪ B or x ∈ C}
= {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11}

(vi) A = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5}
B = {4, 5, 6, 7, 8}
D = {10, 11, 12, 13, 14}
A ∪ B = {x: x ∈ A or x ∈ B}
= {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8}
A ∪ B ∪ D = {x: x ∈ A ∪ B or x ∈ D}
= {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14}

(vii) B = {4, 5, 6, 7, 8}
C = {7, 8, 9, 10, 11}
D = {10, 11, 12, 13, 14}
B ∪ C = {x: x ∈ B or x ∈ C}
= {4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11}
B ∪ C ∪ D = {x: x ∈ B ∪ C or x ∈ D}
= {4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14}

(viii) A = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5}
B = {4, 5, 6, 7, 8}
C = {7, 8, 9, 10, 11}
B ∪ C = {x: x ∈ B or x ∈ C}
= {4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11}
A ∩ B ∪ C = {x: x ∈ A and x ∈ B ∪ C}
= {4, 5}

(ix) A = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5}
B = {4, 5, 6, 7, 8}
C = {7, 8, 9, 10, 11}
(A ∩ B) = {x: x ∈ A and x ∈ B}
= {4, 5}
(B ∩ C) = {x: x ∈ B and x ∈ C}
= {7, 8}
(A ∩ B) ∩ (B ∩ C) = {x: x ∈ (A ∩ B) and x ∈ (B ∩ C)}
= ϕ

(x) A = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5}
B = {4, 5, 6, 7, 8}
C = {7, 8, 9, 10, 11}
D = {10, 11, 12, 13, 14}
A ∪ D = {x: x ∈ A or x ∈ D}
= {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14}
B ∪ C = {x: x ∈ B or x ∈ C}
= {4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11}
(A ∪ D) ∩ (B ∪ C) = {x: x ∈ (A ∪ D) and x ∈ (B ∪ C)}
= {4, 5, 10, 11}

Question 3 :
Let A = {x: x ∈ N}, B = {x: x = 2n, n ∈ N), C = {x: x = 2n – 1, n ∈ N} and, D = {x: x is a prime natural number} Find:
(i) A ∩ B
(ii) A ∩ C
(iii) A ∩ D
(iv) B ∩ C
(v) B ∩ D
(vi) C ∩ D

A = All natural numbers i.e. {1, 2, 3…..}
B = All even natural numbers i.e. {2, 4, 6, 8…}
C = All odd natural numbers i.e. {1, 3, 5, 7……}
D = All prime natural numbers i.e. {1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 11, …}
(i) A ∩ B
A contains all elements of B.
∴ B ⊂ A = {2, 4, 6, 8…}
∴ A ∩ B = B
(ii) A ∩ C
A contains all elements of C.
∴ C ⊂ A = {1, 3, 5…}
∴ A ∩ C = C
(iii) A ∩ D
A contains all elements of D.
∴ D ⊂ A = {2, 3, 5, 7..}
∴ A ∩ D = D
(iv) B ∩ C
B ∩ C = ϕ
There is no natural number which is both even and odd at same time.
(v) B ∩ D
B ∩ D = 2
{2} is the only natural number which is even and a prime number.
(vi) C ∩ D
C ∩ D = {1, 3, 5, 7…}
= D – {2}
Every prime number is odd except {2}.

krishan