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Chapter 2 Relations and Functions Ex-2.1 Interview Questions Answers

Question 1 : If  , find the values of x and y.

Answer 1 :

Given,
 
As the ordered pairs are equal, the corresponding elements should also be equal.
Thus,
x/3 + 1 = 5/3 and y – 2/3 = 1/3
Solving, we get
x + 3 = 5 and 3y – 2 = 1 [Taking L.C.M and adding]
x = 2 and 3y = 3
Therefore,
x = 2 and y = 1

Question 2 : If the set A has 3 elements and the set B = {3, 4, 5}, then find the number of elements in (A × B)?

Answer 2 :

Given, set A has 3 elements and the elements of set B are {3, 4, and 5}.
So, the number of elements in set B = 3
Then, the number of elements in (A × B) = (Number of elements in A) × (Number of elements in B)
= 3 × 3 = 9
Therefore, the number of elements in (A × B) will be 9.

Question 3 : If G = {7, 8} and H = {5, 4, 2}, find G × H and H × G.

Answer 3 :

Given, G = {7, 8} and H = {5, 4, 2}
We know that,
The Cartesian product of two non-empty sets P and Q is given as
P × Q = {(p, q): p ∈ P, q ∈ Q}
So,
G × H = {(7, 5), (7, 4), (7, 2), (8, 5), (8, 4), (8, 2)}
H × G = {(5, 7), (5, 8), (4, 7), (4, 8), (2, 7), (2, 8)}

Question 4 :
State whether each of the following statements are true or false. If the statement is false, rewrite the given statement correctly.
(i) If P = {m, n} and Q = {n, m}, then P × Q = {(m, n), (n, m)}.
(ii) If A and B are non-empty sets, then A × B is a non-empty set of ordered pairs (x, y) such that x ∈ A and y ∈ B.
(iii) If A = {1, 2}, B = {3, 4}, then A × (B ∩ Φ) = Φ.

Answer 4 :

(i) The statement is False. The correct statement is:
If P = {m, n} and Q = {n, m}, then
P × Q = {(m, m), (m, n), (n, m), (n, n)}
(ii) True
(iii) True

Question 5 : If A = {–1, 1}, find A × A × A.

Answer 5 :

The A × A × A for a non-empty set A is given by
A × A × A = {(a, b, c): a, b, c ∈ A}
Here, It is given A = {–1, 1}
So,
A × A × A = {(–1, –1, –1), (–1, –1, 1), (–1, 1, –1), (–1, 1, 1), (1, –1, –1), (1, –1, 1), (1, 1, –1), (1, 1, 1)}

Question 6 : If A × B = {(a, x), (a, y), (b, x), (b, y)}. Find A and B.

Answer 6 :

Given,
A × B = {(a, x), (a, y), (b, x), (b, y)}
We know that the Cartesian product of two non-empty sets P and Q is given by:
P × Q = {(p, q): p ∈ P, q ∈ Q}
Hence, A is the set of all first elements and B is the set of all second elements.
Therefore, A = {a, b} and B = {x, y}

Question 7 :
Let A = {1, 2}, B = {1, 2, 3, 4}, C = {5, 6} and D = {5, 6, 7, 8}. Verify that
(i) A × (B ∩ C) = (A × B) ∩ (A × C)
(ii) A × C is a subset of B × D

Answer 7 :

Given,
A = {1, 2}, B = {1, 2, 3, 4}, C = {5, 6} and D = {5, 6, 7, 8}
(i) To verify: A × (B ∩ C) = (A × B) ∩ (A × C)
Now, B ∩ C = {1, 2, 3, 4} ∩ {5, 6} = Φ
Thus,
L.H.S. = A × (B ∩ C) = A × Φ = Φ
Next,
A × B = {(1, 1), (1, 2), (1, 3), (1, 4), (2, 1), (2, 2), (2, 3), (2, 4)}
A × C = {(1, 5), (1, 6), (2, 5), (2, 6)}
Thus,
R.H.S. = (A × B) ∩ (A × C) = Φ
Therefore, L.H.S. = R.H.S
– Hence verified
(ii) To verify: A × C is a subset of B × D
First,
A × C = {(1, 5), (1, 6), (2, 5), (2, 6)}
And,
B × D = {(1, 5), (1, 6), (1, 7), (1, 8), (2, 5), (2, 6), (2, 7), (2, 8), (3, 5), (3, 6), (3, 7), (3, 8), (4, 5), (4, 6), (4, 7), (4, 8)}
Now, it’s clearly seen that all the elements of set A × C are the elements of set B × D.
Thus, A × C is a subset of B × D.
– Hence verified

Question 8 : Let A = {1, 2} and B = {3, 4}. Write A × B. How many subsets will A × B have? List them.

Answer 8 :

Given,
A = {1, 2} and B = {3, 4}
So,
A × B = {(1, 3), (1, 4), (2, 3), (2, 4)}
Number of elements in A × B is n(A × B) = 4
We know that,
If C is a set with n(C) = m, then n[P(C)] = 2m.
Thus, the set A × B has 24 = 16 subsets.
And, these subsets are as below:
Φ, {(1, 3)}, {(1, 4)}, {(2, 3)}, {(2, 4)}, {(1, 3), (1, 4)}, {(1, 3), (2, 3)}, {(1, 3), (2, 4)}, {(1, 4), (2, 3)}, {(1, 4), (2, 4)}, {(2, 3), (2, 4)}, {(1, 3), (1, 4), (2, 3)}, {(1, 3), (1, 4), (2, 4)}, {(1, 3), (2, 3), (2, 4)}, {(1, 4), (2, 3), (2, 4)}, {(1, 3), (1, 4), (2, 3), (2, 4)}

Question 9 : Let A and B be two sets such that n(A) = 3 and n (B) = 2. If (x, 1), (y, 2), (z, 1) are in A × B, find A and B, where x, y and z are distinct elements.

Answer 9 :

Given,
n(A) = 3 and n(B) = 2; and (x, 1), (y, 2), (z, 1) are in A × B.
We know that,
A = Set of first elements of the ordered pair elements of A × B
B = Set of second elements of the ordered pair elements of A × B.
So, clearly x, y, and z are the elements of A; and
1 and 2 are the elements of B.
As n(A) = 3 and n(B) = 2, it is clear that set A = {x, y, z} and set B = {1, 2}.

Question 10 : The Cartesian product A × A has 9 elements among which are found (–1, 0) and (0, 1). Find the set A and the remaining elements of A × A.

Answer 10 :

We know that,
If n(A) = p and n(B) = q, then n(A × B) = pq.
Also, n(A × A) = n(A) × n(A)
Given,
n(A × A) = 9
So, n(A) × n(A) = 9
Thus, n(A) = 3
Also given that, the ordered pairs (–1, 0) and (0, 1) are two of the nine elements of A × A.
And, we know in A × A = {(a, a): a ∈ A}.
Thus, –1, 0, and 1 has to be the elements of A.
As n(A) = 3, clearly A = {–1, 0, 1}.
Hence, the remaining elements of set A × A are as follows:
(–1, –1), (–1, 1), (0, –1), (0, 0), (1, –1), (1, 0), and (1, 1)


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